The brand new algorithm employed for figuring this new SE are the following: SE = (sphere) + (cylinder)/2

The procedure then followed that have an optometric examination where visual tests was performed on the every users determine its visual acuity, each other with and instead of modification, performing refraction, and you may evaluating binocular eyes and you can holiday accommodation.

Knowing the Parameters

To determine the children’s optical prescription, the spherical equivalent (SE) was calculated and the participants were classified according to their SE into hypermetropic, those whose SE was greater than +0.50 diopters; myopic, those whose SE was < -0.50 Diopters or emmetropic, those whose SE was between?0.50 and +0.50, Diopters (34).

The Clinical Myopia Profile classification was used to calculate the number of hours children spent outdoors, performing near-vision activities, using electronic devices and the influence of their family history (35). According to Gifford, the time the children that spend outdoors during the day (exposure to sunlight) can be classified as low (if they spend between 0 and 1.6 h a day), moderate (if they spend between 1.6 and 2.7 h a day) or high (if they spend more than 2.7 h a day). Concerning near-vision time (excluding school hours), it can be classified as high (more than 3 h a day), moderate (2–3 h a day), or low (0-2 h a day). Within this time interval, the percentage of time spent using digital devices was determined as: <25%, between 25 and 50%, and >50%. With regards to genetics, the questionnaire asked whether either parent or both parents were short-sighted.

Mathematical Investigation

Statistical analysis is actually conducted with the SPSS twenty-five.0 application (SPSS Inc., Chicago, Illinois). The brand new detailed studies of decimal parameters is did by using the suggest, important departure, trust period and you can opportunity ratio. The fresh qualitative details was basically reviewed using the delivery away from wavelengths and you may percentages. Given that they used a low-parametric shipments toward Kolmogorov-Smirnov decide to try, the brand new Kruskal-Wallis decide to try was used having studies studies. Prevalence is calculated having a good 95% believe interval and likewise, a cut fully out-of section off p ?0.05 is thought to gauge the analytical importance.


The research are used when you look at the times of , coinciding into start of the university 12 months. All in all, 8,408 medical suggestions throughout Spain was basically tested (step three,991 for the 2016, dos,161 within the 2017, and dos,257 during the 2019). Ones records, 711 have been excluded while they failed to meet up with the addition conditions (pupils was lower than five years or over seven yrs old), and you will 199 due to missing research. In total, 7,497 participants have been checked, where 35.5% (n = 2658) were emmetropic, 46.6% (letter = 3493) was basically hypermetropic and you will 18% (n = 1346) was indeed myopic. The fresh percentages differ over the ages (Shape step 1). The common age of people is actually 6.16 ± 0.78 many years. With regards to sex, 4,027 (53.7%) of your own people have been male, and you can step 3,471 (46.3%) had been people.

The fresh mean SE worthy of is actually 0.80 ± 2.03 Diopters (0.00 ± 0.15D when you look at the emmetropia, 2.34 ± step 1.67D inside hypermetropy, and?step 1.64 ± step 1.54D for the myopia). Regarding ages, SE from the 5 years are 0.97 ± dos.15 Diopters, in the six years 0.83 ± dos.00 Diopters, and also at seven years 0.66 ± 1.98 Diopters. Out of intercourse, imply SE beliefs was in fact 0.81 ± 2.10 Diopters inside male professionals and you will 0.78 ± step 1.95 Diopters for the females professionals.

Brand new prevalence of myopic logowanie colombiancupid in children aged 5-eight years has grown of sixteen.8% (n = 594) from inside the 2016 so you’re able to 19% (n = 390) when you look at the 2019 (OR: step one.step 14; CI: 1.09?step 1.19; p ? 0.001). New frequency off myopia enhanced progressively as we grow old (p ? 0.001) having 13.9% (n = 247) in children aged five years, 17.6% (letter = 469) in kids old 6 years and you can % (letter = 630) in kids old eight years (OR: 6.28; CI: 6.2six-6.31; p ? 0.001). not, no high relationship anywhere between gender and you will myopia are imagined (p = 0.169).