The Discorsi circa la avanti deca di Tito Livio (Discourses on the first ten books of Livy) was probably written between 1515 and 1517, although some scholars believe Machiavelli began it mediante 1513, dropped it preciso write The Prince, then returned esatto it. c.addirittura. sicuro 194 b.c.addirittura. written by Titus Livy (59 b.c.addirittura. – 17 C.Di nuovo.) as the starting point. Machiavelli offered analyses of the https://datingranking.net/it/chatiw-review/ principles and institutions of successful, enduring republics, that is, states mediante which the people have greater or lesser participation sopra government.
Mediante the Discourses, Machiavelli paid less attention to individuals but focused on groups, such as the nobles and the people, and especially the political, religious, and military institutions and laws needed for verso successful republic. Using even more examples from the ancient world, especially Rome, and current events than he used con The Prince, he argued that per successful republic must have good laws that the people respect. Indeed governments should engender respect by severely punishing transgressors. He endorsed civil religion with the argument that ancient Roman religion strengthened the state by encouraging its inhabitants onesto fight for the state. By contrast, Christianity, with its ideals of humility and peace, weakened the state. Machiavelli also criticized the papacy for dividing Italy through its politics and wars.
Machiavelli also wrote Dell’arte della disputa (1519 – 1520; The art of war), which discussed military organization and tactics. Machiavelli believed strongly that states should develop citizen militias, which would be much more reliable than the untrustworthy and fickle mercenary soldiers. His Istorie fiorentine (1520 – 1524; Florentine histories) used episodes from Florentine history esatto illustrate political principles and preciso criticize Florentine factionalism. But he carefully avoided either praising or criticizing the Medici. His play La mandragola (c. 1517; The mandrake root) is a thoroughly amoral and hilarious masterpiece. The best comedy sicuro che razza di from Renaissance Italy, it is still performed con the twenty-first century. He also wrote another comedy, Clizia (c. 1525), the short story Belfagor (written between 1515 and 1520), poetry, shorter historical works, numerous personal letters, plus diplomatic reports during his aceree political career.
Machiavelli’s works had enormous influence from the moment of the printing of most of his works sopra 1532 through the eighteenth century. Although the Index of Prohibited Books forbade the publication, holding, or reading of all of Machiavelli’s works, numerous printings and translations, some of them under fictitious names, appeared in the sixteenth century and the following centuries. And writers responded preciso Machiavelli because he posed the basic political question, can political success and the moral law be reconciled? The view that they could not was expressed per terms of “reason of state” (an expression Machiavelli did not use), the argument that for the good of the state per ruler or government ily members of political rivals, an action Machiavelli endorsed sopra The Prince.
The French Huguenot Innocent Gentillet (c. 1532 – 1588) durante his Discours contre Machiavel (1576; Discourse against Machiavelli) was the first sicuro condemn Machiavelli for separating politics from morality, although some of his political recommendations were equivocal. The term Machiavellian, meaning the use of immoral means to achieve political power, soon came into use. The English playwrights Christopher Shakespeare (1564 – 1616) several times used such expressions as “murderous Machiavel.” King Richard III of England (ruled 1483 – 1485), who lived before Machiavelli wrote, was seen as Machiavellian, because it was believed that he murdered several people mediante his ruthless ascent esatto power.
Political theorists tried puro ad esempio to terms with the issues Machiavelli raised. Giovanni Botero (1544 – 1617) sopra his Della ragion di ceto (1589; Reason of state), which saw many reprints and translations, argued that rulers could reconcile political ends and Christian morality, especially if the state’s actions benefited religion. When durante doubt, the ruler should consult his confessor. Some seventeenth-century English Puritan casuists also endorsed the principle that the state’s actions sopra defense of true religion were morally defensible. Frederick II the Great (ruled 1740 – 1786), king of Prussia, did not completely condemn Machiavelli per his Anti-Machiavel (1767). Machiavelli’s republican theories also influenced such English political theorists as James Harrington (1611 – 1677), Henry Neville (1620 – 1694), and Algernon Sidney (1623 – 1683), and perhaps the founders of the American Republic mediante the late eighteenth century.